Note. Preparation and Characterisation of Cake Rusks by Using Red Palm Oil Fortified Shortening
Sadiq Butt, J. Rasool, K. Sharif
Cake rusks were prepared by using different combinations of normal and red palm oil fortified shortening to explore the possibility of red palm oil (RPO) fortified shortening to enhance the vitamin A status in human dietary intake. The replacement of normal shortening with RPO up to 50% level was the most acceptable, however, the use of RPO shortening beyond this limit showed a somewhat oily after taste. Carotenoid contents in flour, normal shortening, RPO shortening and egg were 3.57 ppm, 5.85ppm, 405.39 ppm and 5.13 ppm, respectively. Moisture content increased from 3.11% to 3.22% after 28 days of storage. During baking, loss of carotenoid contents ranged from 12.07% to 14.91%. A minimum carotenoid content of 7.19 ppm were found in the cake rusks (T1) prepared with 100% normal shortening (NS) while a maximum of 105.64 ppm was observed in (T5) 100% RPO in the freshly prepared product. The mean carotenoid content in T3 (50% RPO 50% NS) was 57.80ppm however it ranged from 6.94ppm (T1) to 102.34 ppm in (T5). A gradual decrease (7–10%) in carotenoid contents during 28 days’ storage was observed. There was significant increase (0.04–0.08 mg malonaldehyde/kg) in thiobarbituric acid number during storage. Results regarding sensory attributes reflect that T3 comprising of 50% RPO and 50% NS got the highest score. Furthermore consumer response in the acceptability study also showed that T3 treatment of cake rusk is suitable for commercialisation.
Health Benefits of Using Red Palm Oil in Deep-frying Potatoes: Low Acrolein Emissions and High Intake of Carotenoids
A.J. Andreu-Sevilla, A. Hartmann, F. Burló, N. Poquet, A.A. Carbonell-Barrachina
Palm oil is the second largest vegetable oil in terms of world production. Besides, red palm oil (RPO) is nonhydrogenated, has a high oxidative stability and contains high levels of natural antioxidants, such as carotenoids. The main objectives of this study were to study acrolein emissions during deep-frying operations, as an indicator of potentially toxic volatile compounds, and to evaluate the importance of French fries (fried with red palm oil) as an extra source of carotenoids in the diet. The acrolein emission rates from mono-unsaturated oils, such as red palm and olive oils, were much lower than that of poly-unsaturated oils, sunflower. The total carotenoid content of red palm oil, 480 mg/L, makes this oil perfect for developing functional foods round the world and gives the oil a high oxidative stability and long shelf life. Sensory tests proved that RPO French fries were scored positively by regular consumers. Their color was initially considered unusual and got low scores; however, when the flavor was evaluated RPO fries got higher scores than olive or sunflower fries. RPO proved to generate low amounts of potentially toxic volatiles, acrolein, and be an excellent source carotenoids.